Canarium littorale Blume, Bijdr. (1826)

Latin for 'coastal'.

Synonyms
Canarium acutum Engl. in DC
Canarium bennettii Engl. in DC
Canarium flavum Ridl.
Canarium giganteum Engl. in DC
Canarium glaucum Bl.
Canarium littorale forma pruinosum (Engl.) Leenh.
Canarium littorale forma purpurascens (Benn.) Leenh.
Canarium littorale forma rufum (Benn.) Leenh.
Canarium littorale forma tomentosum (Blume) Leenh.
Canarium pruinosum Engl. in DC
Canarium pseudocommune Hochr.
Canarium pseudocommune var. genuinum Hochr.
Canarium pseudocommune var. subelongatum Hochr.
Canarium purperascens Benn. in Hook.f.
Canarium rufum Benn. in Hook.f.
Canarium secundum Benn. in Hook.f.
Canarium serricuspe Miq.
Canarium serrulatum Miq.
Canarium subtruncatum (non Engl.) Baker
Canarium tomentosum Bl.
Canarium tomentosum var. flavum Bl.
Canarium tomentosum var. typicum Bl.
Rhus melintangensis Korth. ex Blume

Description
Tree (3-)10-30(-44) m by 20-70(-100) cm, sometimes buttressed. Branchlets 0.25-1 cm thick, glabrescent; pith with some large to many small vascular strands, all or part of them peripherally arranged. Stipules caducous, inserted on the branchlet near the base of the petiole, reniformous, 5 by 4 mm, with various intergrades to: subpersistent and inserted on the base of the petiole, semi-rotundate, 17 by 12 mm, margin repandous; nearly always tomentose. Leaves (0-)2-6-jugate, 17-60 cm long, glabrous to tomentose. Leaflets ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 3-27 by 1-9 cm, chartaceous to coriaceous, smooth to bullate, glabrous°™sometimes waxy white beneath°™to densely tomentose beneath and on the midrib above; base cuneate to faintly cordate, slightly inequilateral; margin entire to dentate or serrulate; apex (gradually to) rather abruptly shortly acuteacuminate, acumen mostly dentate or serrate; nerves 9-22 pairs (angle 60-90degrees, gradually decreasing from base to apex), slightly curved, often partly arching near the margin. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes with additional ones in the upper leaf-axils, paniculate male to subracemose female, 5-40 cm long, often densely reddish-brown tomentose, sometimes glabrous. Bracts concave. Flowers 8-13 mm long, outside densely ferrugineously pubescent. Calyx 4-9 mm high. Stamens 6, filaments glabrous, in male flowers often slightly connate, adnate to the disk, in female flowers inserted on the rim of the disk. Disk in male flowers from globular, solid, tapering into a style-like appendix, to cupular, thick-fleshy, without any rudiment of the pistil; 1-3 mm high, nearly always glabrous; in female flowers minute, faintly 6-undulate, glabrous to tomentose. Pistil glabrous or pilose. Infructescenses 5-25 cm long, densely tomentose, with 1-6 fruits; calyx funnel-shaped, triangular, c. 8 mm diam., to flat, orbicular, 1.5 cm diam., with undulate margin. Fruits ellipsoid (to obovoid), rounded triangular in cross-section, 4.5-7 by 1.5°™3 cm, sparsely pilose to glabrous; pyrene smooth, acutely triangular in cross-section; lids 2-4 mm thick. Seeds 1-2, sterile cells moderately reduced. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
Rain-forests on dry or swampy soils, under everwet or (in E. Java) subseasonal conditions, often on sandy soils, also in keranga forests, mostly at low altitudes, rarely up to 2000 m.

Uses
The wood is used for house-building, though it is rather soft. The resin is used as a damar; in Indo-China it is said to be very sought after by the Chinese as a medicine against itch.

Distribution
Indo-China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo.

Local names
Borneo: Asam, Bekatan, Damar kahingai, Jelemu, Karamu barawou, Kawangang, Kurihang, Mekos, Rupai, Sala, Seladah.
Java: ki kanari, ki tuwak, tanglar; Sundanese: dahu, deluwak, gijubug, sadjeng; Javanese: buht.
Peninsular Malaysia: buak kawa, chabok, damar kijai, gerinu, kasumba, kedondong bulan, kedondong gegaji, kedondong kana, kedondong kejai, kedondong mata hari, kedondong pasir, kerat telampok, kerat telunjok, kerjijoh, medang beladuk, medang bulanati, melang, sangol (sungol) hutan.
Sumatra: madang tjingi; Atjeh: andalhe, basang, lalen, Tapanuli, damar hija-hija, damar kitimbalun, kalek djambu, matanbango; West Central Sumatra: kedondong (tjelana); East Central Sumatra: damar asam, damar pau; Bencoolen: kadundung asem, kaju tengiling, mardundung, tetak tundjuk; Palembang: kaju ariong.